Current Photographic Learning – Health – Expressing My Vision – Lighting and Portraits

I’m struggling at the moment. My confidence in my photography is low. Partly this is relating to my health. I’ve just been diagnosed with diabetes, it’s not a major condition bit it’s knocked the wind out of me. I have no energy and feel ill after eating, and because of my mental health I rarely get out until after lunch.

So I haven’t been out with my camera much. This doesn’t help with confidence. To improve my photography I need to be taking photos, exploring light, and seeking opportunities to create the photography that I want to.

My first assignment has been an eye opener for me. I followed the brief and from reviewing the work of Chloe Dewe Matthews, Walker Evans and Dan Holdsworth, I wanted to create a series that fit together and had a narrative. My aim was also to create a narrative in some individual photos that also included some symbolism. There were four that my tutor liked, which I also did, and one more that I felt worked. Five photos that achieved my aim. There was one other that I didn’t include because the traffic, which was endless, ruined the photo. I am not good at travelling without support so I can’t go back and re take it at the moment.

I know the photography that I want to make and it involves people, and a sociological narrative. History has come up for me as something to explore that had also come from the Square Mile assignment.

In writing this I feel better about the first assignment. I did achieve my goals in several photos, and even the ones that I didn’t get good feedback about in relation to my vision as a photographer, there technicality and how they would work well in the tourist industry and promotional photography was noted upon and promising.

That’s not the kind of photography that I want to make though.

My plan now is to bring sociology and history into my coursework wherever I can. If I make the kind of photos that I want then tI can make the most out of the rest of my coursework.

I have been asking people if I can take their portraits, which I will upload at a later date. I’m a stickler for doing things in order.

I have completed my photo essay on autism, but can’t contact who I publish with at the moment, I will give it a few more days and then either self publish or look elsewhere, although I would prefer to stick with the magazine I use. I will add my analyses and learning once the article is published.

Image the Portrait.

I’ve been reading others blogs and I look forward to Creating the Exotic. I’m going to compare it with photos of Matahari.

Painting with light.

I have some ideas that I want to explore, including using two people sitting side by side, and using light to highlight half of each person’s face, the half’s that are next to each other.  I can then create a face from two different half’s that are the wrong side.

Colour, skin, texture and drama.

Wow. What a difference colour can make. The drama of different lighting is apparent to me from my photography of the Chinese State Circus. But I’ve also been looking out for lighting effects on TV and film. Green is not a good colour as it makes skin look Ill. Red can have many effects depending how close, soft, or hard the lighting is. Blue brings out texture of skin and building very well when it is close to the subject.

Lighting, make up and tanning.

Why are we seeing so many orange people on TV nowadays? Sunbeds and tanning booths make for poor skin on TV. Make up artists and lighting technician’s need to be more aware of how lighting and make up interact. With the wrong lighting and make up people look burned or bruised.

The question this has raised for me is how does lighting affect people of different race and skin tone?

I’m feeling much better at the end of this post. I may not be photographing at the moment, but I’m still exploring photography.

Need help?

Marcus is my favourite current street photographer, and he was recently voted 30th in wordpress’ most important street photography blogs. His Web site has a help Centre so that you can learn to improve your photography. He also welcomes questions and comments. Marcus travels around the world regularly with his job, and he makes great photography wherever he goes. There is always a story accompanying his photos. Well worth following.

Streets of Nuremberg

Calling for Help Calling for Help | Portland | 2017

Have you checked the tips and inspirations in my Learning Center? Are you looking for specific photography related advice? Anything out of the realms of Street- and travel photography you want me to write about? Let me know in the comments section!

Have a great Wednesday!

Marcus

Related Posts:

Street Photography Quick Tip (6)

Finding your photographic style

Some thoughts on monochrome shooting

Instant Inspiration (11) – Change of Perspective

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Shaolin Monks – Chinese State Circus

The Shaolin Monks practice the martial art that is now called Shaolin Kung Fu. They may now perform with the Chinese State Circus, but they are Chan Buddhists and martial arts experts trained in the use of 36 weapons and other fighting techniques. The Shaolin Temple was built in 495AD in the Henan Province China.

Shaolin MonksShaolin MonksShaolin MonksShaolin MonksShaolin Monks

Lightroom Tutorial 6 – Exporting and Saving Photos

Why do we export photos in Lightroom (p.s. exporting is really saving)

As Lightroom is developing a virtual copy of your photo, if you exit Lightroom and find the photo in its original folder and click on it, you will not see the changes that you made in Lightroom because nothing has been saved.

However when you open Lightroom again, the photo will open with the changes that you have made. If we don’t export the developments that we have made to a virtual copy, then we can only access those developments in Lightroom. This is why we need to export photos when we are ready to use them. Lightroom doesn’t use the term save, it instead says export. However, when you export a photo, you are in effect saving it.

Before we exploring the export feature for the purpose of saving and then making use of your photo (publish on web or blog), there is a neat trick that Lightroom uses alongside Photoshop. In the photo below I am unhappy with the second bird that appears at the bottom of the photo. I have developed the photo in Lightroom and am happy with how it looks, other than that damn bird.

save-1

For this trick to work you need to export it to Photoshop. Press Ctrl and E and this box will appear.

save-2

Check the box “Edit a copy with Lightroom adjustments” and then click edit. Your photo is now opened in Photoshop. Make the changes that you need to in Photoshop, such as cloning part of the image or creating layers. While you’re at this point in Photoshop it may be worth using the auto tone and auto contrast as these can neaten up your exposure a little. The quick keys for this are:- Ctrl Shift and L for auto tone, and Ctrl Shift alt L for auto contrast. If you’re not happy with them just use Alt Ctrl Z to step back.

Now here comes the neat trick. Save the photo by pressing Ctrl Shift and S, don’t change the file name, and now save you photo as a TIFF file. Go back to Lightroom. Sometimes it will display a blank screen and at others it will show you the TIFF you have just edited (I don’t know why it isn’t consistent with this but it doesn’t matter). If you have the blank screen, check your photo ribbon at the bottom of the screen, and on the far right you will have two photos, your TIFF and the RAW or JPEG etc file that you had developed (see below). If you wish to make further adjustments to your photo then you can work on the TIFF file from here on. The key things when doing this is to keep the same file name and save as a TIFF. If you change the file name then you will have to import the photo into the Lightroom catalogue, whereas keeping the same file name means that appears in your catalogue automatically. This is really useful as you may wish to make further developments in Lightroom, or to compare the two photos. This technique keeps the process straight forward.

save-3

Exporting

Once you get the hang of it, exporting is a very simple process, and it can automate file names, sub folders, image size, sharpening and file type. You can also add a watermark, and embed your IPTC data.

Let’s imagine that I have 8 photos that I am going to post to my student blog for an assignment. I have developed them and added/saved metadata (see Lightroom Tutorial 2).

Go into the library module and select all that you wish to export/save. Ctrl A will select them all or you can Ctrl click to select several photos individually.

save-4

1 – all of the photos have a light grey surround to show that I have selected them all, any with a dark grey surround have not been selected.

2 – Click export and the following menu will appear (this is the top half, further down the page is the bottom half of this menu)

save-51 – File destination, 2 – Folder options, 3 – Sub-folder, 4 – Photo naming options, 5 – File type i.e. TIFF, JPEG etc

1 – File destination, you can export directly to email, cd/dvd or your hard drive. If you are saving to an external drive you would keep the hard drive option checked and then find the drive by choosing a specific folder from the menu numbered 2 above.

2 – Folder options. There are a few options here, including exporting to the original folder, but I choose “Export to specific folder”. Clicking the choose button I find the original file folder and then I am going to check put in sub folder.

3 – Sub folder. I use this option for simplicity. If I have exported to the original folder without following 2 above, then when it comes to selecting the photos for the web or my blog, I have to go through all of the photos and check their properties. However, by checking the sub-folder I can then export only the photos that I will use, they will all be in one place which makes it easy to use them without re-sorting them, and I can name the sub-folder as well. I name the sub-folder by the file size. In the above image mine says 1080  – which I use to show that I have saved these photos at 1080p (1080 pixels in height). For an assignment I may be asked to save at 2000 pixels on the long edge, so I would then name the folder 2000. This means that my photos are easy to find, and easy to submit, post, or upload. Knowing the pixel size is useful for me and saves me from having to check the properties, this speeds up my workflow.

4 – Photo naming options. It is not necessary to use specific names for your photos. The original extension that was imprinted by your camera is often good enough. I prefer to use a file name, so I check “Rename to, Custom name x of y”, and in the custom text I add the name. In the example above I have used the custom text “exercise 2.12”. This means that all of the eight photos will be named exercise 2.12, and they will also be sequentially numbered.

5 – File type. Here you can choose between JPG, PDF, TIFF, DNG and original. For some of the exercises in Foundations in Photography we are asked to submit TIFF files, and on my website and blog I use JPG. You can set your required file type here, along with the quality and the colour space. I tend to stick with sRGB – which is the internet standard colour space. Using this option embeds your colour profile. This is important, because there are times where you may save a photo in Photoshop or other photo developing software and you’re pleased with your photo. Then you upload it to the internet and your colours are all wrong. This is because the colour space has not been embedded. If you are using Photoshop then do not use Ctrl Shift S to save (unless you are doing so for the Lightroom/Photoshop tip above). In Photoshop use the save for web option by simultaneously pressing Ctrl Alt Shift and S, and this also embeds your colour profile. There are times when you have to limit your file size. Some competitions may require a maximum 2MB per photo, and you can set this by checking the “Limit file size to” button. Lightroom will then adjust the quality accordingly.

save-61 – Image size, 2 – Sharpenning, 3 – Metadata, 4 – Watermark, 5 – Post processing.

1 – Image size. For some assignments we are asked to submit photos that are 2000 pixels on the longest size, and occasionally to submit low res files of 600 pixels on the longest side. This is easy to set up. Click “resize to fit”, change the drop down box next to it so that it says “width and Height”, and then alter the figures in the width and height boxes “w” and “H”. In the photo above you will see that my width is set to 10000 and my height to 1080. This is so that the height of the photo is 1080 pixels. If I had the width at 1000 pixels than that may automatically reduce the height below my desired 1080. However, if you want a photo set so that the longest edge is 2000, then set both the width and height to 2000. If I want to export a photo in its original file size then I set the boxes both to 10000. This is larger than the original file size of my photos, so they wont be altered, but I will now have the photo saved as a TIFF of JPEG.

2 – Sharpening. It is advised that we only sharpen photos that we have finished developing and are ready to use. This way we don’t create blocky and pixelated images, which will happen if you sharpen too early in the developing process and then reducing the image size. It’s unlikely that you will export from Lightroom until you are ready to make use of the photo so you can sharpen at this point without losing your image quality.

3 – Although you have already added metadata to your photo, at this stage you can choose to embed it into your exported file, or to get rid of parts of it. I like having metadata saved in my photos. It means that my details are stored in my photos so that I can be contacted, and some search engines pick this up. You can search keywords in Lightroom if they are saved, so in two years time you can use a keyword search in Lightroom with the terms i.e. “red” and “Bugs”, and Lightroom can then find all of your photos that are labelled as red or bugs or both. It makes searching for photos at a later date easy. However, there are times when you need to strip a photo of metadata. The Societies of Photographers run competitions each month for members and non-members. They have quite strict conditions, i.e. 2000 pixels on the longest side, 2MB file size limit, and no metadata embedded into the photo. Lightroom makes it possible to strip the metadata from the photo that you are going to use.

4 – Watermark. You can add a watermark, and when I use one it is a copyright symbol and my website details (Lightroom Tutorial 7 will include how to set up a watermark).

5 – Post Processing. Once you have exported a photo you may want to open it in Photoshop or another application. I tend to have this set at do nothing. If I needed to clone or use adjustment layers in Photoshop I would have done this earlier using the Ctrl E, and then saved as a TIFF from Photoshop, so there is nothing further for me to do at this point.

Key Points

Lightroom develops a virtual copy of your photo. If you develop a photo in Lightroom and then exit Lightroom and view the original file folder and click on a photo it will appear undeveloped. This is why we export photos from Lightroom using the export button. Exporting the photo will save the changes that you have made.

Export an individual photo from Lightroom to Photoshop by pressing Ctrl E. Once you have finished developing in Photoshop you then press Ctrl Shift S to save, save as a TIFF and do not alter the file name. Your edited photo is now in your Lightroom catalogue.

Use the export button in Lightroom to embed your colour profile. In Photoshop use the save for web or Ctrl Alt Shift S to embed the colour profile.

Because you have exported to a sub-folder then your full size developed original remains in your Lightroom catalogue, so if you need a larger photo later, then it’s there waiting for you.

 

Look out for Lightroom Tutorial 7, which will cover the basics of making contact sheets, creating PDF files, and slideshows.

Collaborative Photo Essay About Living With Autism – Learning About Portrait Photography

It has been a pleasure to have 9 collaborators on the photo essay that I am writing about living with autism. The photos and accompanying words are great. The challenge for me is researching autism, living with autism, and writing an article that recognises the medical model but has more focus on the people.

Although autism is often a disability for people who have it, that’s a minor part of what I want to present. The real disability is how society reacts to people with autism, and also de-humanises people once they have been labelled and put into a neat box. More over the next few days.

A point of learning for me with regard to collaboration is Authorship. I’m putting the essay together but that doesn’t make me the author or the owner of the work. We have agreed where I will publish the essay, my collaborators have shared their photos, writing and how to credit and link. Once I have written the article (aiming for monday), I will then send it out for their review and feedback, along with alterations where necessary. The key is to ensure that we all retain Authorship and ownership of the essay.

What have I learned about portrait photography? Relationship, rapport and repetition.

That’s the buzz words covered, ha ha.

Repetition is key. The way to improve is practice.

Rapport. It’s hard to build rapport if you are taking photos solely for the purpose of improving your skills. I have certainly found it easy to ask someone if I can take their photo when something about them interests me.

 

This is now leading to building a relationship. Through reading about portrait photography and reviewing other photographers I had the confidence to try something different today. I asked a man to look through the lens, into my face, and look angry. I asked him to look passed off with me for taking his photo.

It’s another step forward and I can develop this into exploring other emotions with other people.

 

Exercise 2.2 – People and Activity – The Plan

A trip out to 3 venues – Grosmont train station and engineer yard, on the NYMR train between Grosmont and Goathland, the platforms of Grosmont and Goathland.

What do I want to capture? Primary objective is the work being carried out in the engine sheds (trains, engineers, different aspects of work). Will make use of tripod, and will try to use flash. Will attach half toilet roll to prevent flash from bouncing off of the train (glare) so that I can direct it to the workers who I want to capture. Three engine sheds, one well lit, one dark at one end, partially lit at the other (flash), one that stores trains but is less frequently used to work on them. Small aperture, flash, tripod (longer exposure, lower ISO). Workers, trains, grinder, coal hopper, candid.

Secondary. Stations, water being topped up, leading lines, large aperture so focal point is on worker manning the hose and the front of the train. The faces of the crowd – distant, group, candid. Individuals taken candid, but then review with them post photo and ask if they are happy for me to keep the photo. Steam from wheels going over the platform edge and merging with the people.

Secondary. On the train, carriage layout, people, design. View out of window that partially includes the train. View in focus, inner train out of focus.

Will take in photo, but am considering converting to black and white or sepia, although I am not sure.

Keep eye out for portraits where only part of face has lighting. Leading lines for composition, tension on opposing thirds, natural frames, spur of the moment, contradiction/juxtaposition.

Aim:- documentary photography in the style of Martin Parr and Manuel Alvares Bravo, so that I can include candid photography capturing work, leisure and expression, but with the clarity (and hopefully artistry) of Bravo. History can be quite romantic, but I do not want that element to take over, expression and emotion to provide balance with the trains and machinery.

Exercise 2.2 – People and Activity Research

Before you begin shooting, ask yourself what kind of photographs you want to make. Will they be candid photographs like Henri Cartier-Bresson’s or distant views of activity like Andreas Gursky’s? Will you seek out key gestures, facial expressions and telling relationships like Martin Parr or make ‘snapshots’ of characters in the maelstrom of life like Robert Frank? Will you try to frame the activity in a specific lighting effect like Trent Parke or will you seek to capture cultural details like Manuel Álvarez Bravo? Go online and research these well-known practitioners.

Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908 – 2004) renowned for being the developer of candid street photography. The decisive moment, setting up the shot, waiting for the action to present itself. Used small, often unnoticeable Leica with 50mm lens. People were therefore more natural and not playing up to or avoiding the camera. Often got very close to his subjects. Black and White. Decisive moment  more visible in Soviet Union, Moscow, 1954. Excellent composition, and often creates tension between subject in opposing thirds (diagonally). Leading lines, people, space, good tonal range. Dignity. Are these photos to aesthetic? Does he really photograph life as it is? (the aesthetic beauty suggests otherwise?) Founding member of Magnum Photos.

INDIA. Punjab. Kurukshetra. A refugee camp for 300.000 people.  Autumn 1947.Fig. 1. A refugee camp for 300.000 people (1947)

Andreas Gursky (1955) Oh my gosh. What can I say about him. He is a photographer and digital artist. Some of his photography appears very crisp, and detailed, with small aperture, and others don’t appear to have any clarity what so ever, and are  deliberately abstract. I get that he explores the effects of capitalism and how it impacts upon people and the natural environment. It has taken me a while to get to grips with his photography, with an initial repulsion that I had to wait to settle down, and the ntake another look.

My mind had certain preconceived ideas about what photography is, and Gurskey shatters these, and that’s why it has taken me a while to adjust. The other thing to consider is that I am only impacted by his photos based upon what I see upon a TV screen, and his art/photography may be 2 meters by 10 meters. I would love to experience being involved in photography with that proximity.

He is a master of digital manipulation and will blend different photos of the same scene together, so that the image is distorted in some way. He uses a variety of other pixel painting, digital over painting, pixelate and blur techniques, in order to alter his images.

I am writing this preparing for exercise 2.2, so I am not completing a thorough review here, but I would like to come back to him. At the moment his work is a little to abstract for what I have in mind for my planned shoot.

Hauptversammlung-I,-Diptychon,-2001Fig. 2. Hauptversammlung I, (2001)

Martin Parr (1952) One of the things that I try to get right with my photography is tidiness. Cropping at the edges to remove distractions, being aware of other distractions within the frame. This doesn’t bother Parr. His photos have parts of clothing where people are walking out of the frame, the edge of cars, litter etc. I do not believe this is an accident. He makes use of this to confirm the roughness that he presents, it is a prop for him to add impact to his photography.

It’s hard to look at Parr’s traditional photography, without being aware of the criticism that has been levelled against him, “Parr’s depiction of New Brighton holidaymakers was viewed by some as a grotesque and cold satire that ridiculed the working class” (Hacking, J, 2012; p455) I have seen interviews previously where he has defended his photographic style of showing what is there, however, when you view his more recent work you can see the criticism has impacted upon his photographic style. He has gone from being edgy, cutting edge, pushing the boat out and taking risks, to producing technically good photos at events where he has clearly been invited, and people know who he is and why he is there. It’s no longer candid, nor a challenge to view and interpret.

I find it quite interesting that I have this response. As somebody who is not comfortable with candid street photography, I prefer those earlier series produced by Parr.

If I was going to draw on Parr for inspiration for this exercise, then I could use both candid and more staged photography. I intend to be shooting in an environment where the staff know that they will be photographed on a regular basis, and without needing to gain permission, and combine these with photos of the public that are candid for large groups, and with consent for individuals and small groups.

I am reviewing photographers regularly now, and can see that you don’t have to make technically correct and aesthetically pleasing photos all of the time. With Parr, juxtaposition is more important than aesthetics. There is clearly an element of Cartier-Bresson in the photography that Parr produces. The juxtaposition is how he captures the decisive moment. His desire to capture human expression, which borders on humiliation of individuals, is paramount. Parr clearly has a vision of what he wants to capture. I do not believe he wants to humiliate the working class, but rather to show the disparity between life for those of different classes. There is a strong humanitarian impulse in his photography, although you need the inner space to consider this without preconception and prejudice.

London Undergorund and bus stops 1994Fig. 3. London Underground and Bus Stops (1992)

KENYA. Nairobi. The Karen Country Club. Table service outside the club. 2010.Fig. 4. Karen Country Club (2010)

Robert Frank (1924) The Americans 1958 – Frank is a photographer who I will explore more fully in the future. A renowned street photographer who was influenced a little by his friend Walker Evans, but more so by the Beatnik poets and writers. He moved to America in 1947, and his trips around America during the mid 1950’s gave him the opportunity to explore and present Americans as an outsider. He was curious to explore what was a new culture to him. (Wikimedia Foundation Inc, 2017a)

The facial expressions are key in Frank’s candid street photography, and I can see why he has been suggested in the brief for exercise 2.2. I see dignity, and contemplation throughout the series The Americans. Maybe Frank’s curiosity and contemplation of a society that was unfamiliar is why he chose the photos that he did (only 83 out of 28,000). The three photos that I have selected all capture emotion and leave me with a sense of feeling, sadness, perhaps anxiety as well. I am looking at these photos with an understanding that street photography is about capturing mood, however Frank was one of the first photographers to use emotion to make his photos, rather than to provide technically astute and pleasing “documents” (Kim, 2013). I have not seen many of Frank’s photos, but I can pick up on a racial tension. It is through the reading of articles that I become aware that the truly challenging nature of Frank’s photography was that he explored, photographed and presented the sides of America that were kept hidden, and showed the depths of despair that was felt in many communities.

Detroit 1955Fig. 5. Detroit (1955)

Funeral St Helena 1955Fig. 6. Funeral St Helena (1955)

IndianapollisFig. 7. Indianapolis (1956)

The capture of emotion and the people’s expression are pleasing to me, and something that I can capture a little of during the exercise. I will shoot in colour, but as I am capturing something of the historic, then I may convert to black and white in the developing process.

Manuel Álvarez Bravo (1902 – 2002) His photography is crisper, cleaner and more artistic than that of Robert Frank, and although Striking Worker Murdered (see below) is graphic and bleak, his photography doesn’t have the emotional impact of Frank. I believe that as he photographs as an insider he does not allow his documentary photography become street photography. However his influences were different. His interests in art, cubism, abstract, and architecture can be seen throughout his photography and over 70 years of making photos. Many of his images are made collaboratively with the people that he photographed, they were either posed or semi staged so as to appear natural. It is apparent that most of the people who he took photos of, knew that they were being photographed. He makes good use of a small aperture and large format camera to bring out the details of the people and buildings that he shoots.

Striking-Worker-Murdered-1934Fig. 8. Striking Worker Murdered (1934)

Figures in the castleFig. 9. Figures in the Castle (1920’s)

The above photo has good composition and lighting, but the interest comes from the reflection of the domed ceiling, along with the stairs. It reminds me of a bird-cage, and the two women are standing on the perch. I wanted to include this image because it is a representation of the artistic influence of Bravo’s education and before he had contact with other photographers. Bravo was a self-taught photographer (Wikimedia Foundation Inc, 2017b) and I find this quite exciting. Because he was not influenced by other photographers, he had an eye for what felt and looked right to him, and without the need to photograph properly. I admire the artistry of his photographs.

How can I allow his influence in the exercise? The keys here are using your eye. What looks good to me? Does something look artistic? How can I capture the texture best? Depth of field – What is appropriate for the shot.

Illustrations

Figure 1. Cartier-Bresson, H; 1947; A refugee camp for 300.000 [Gelatin silver print on paper]; At: https://pro.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL53ZMYN#/CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL53ZMYN&POPUPIID=2S5RYDPXT0R&POPUPPN=3 (accessed on 09/10/2017)

Figure 2. Gurskey, A; 2001; Hauptversammlung I [C – Print]; At: http://www.artnet.com/artists/andreas-gursky/hauptversammlung-i-diptychon-a-0FrC9PrRmiKHjIXN-uF4dw2 (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Figure 3. Parr, M; 1992; London Underground and Bus Stops; At: https://www.martinparr.com/archive/exhibitions/signs-of-the-times/ (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Figure 4. Parr, M; 2010; Karen Country Club; At: https://www.martinparr.com/2014/ (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Figure 5. Frank, R; 1955; Detroit; At: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/nov/07/robert-frank-americans-photography-influence-shadows (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Figure 6. Frank, R; 1955; Funeral St Helena; At: https://www.lensculture.com/articles/robert-frank-the-americans#slideshow (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Figure 7. Frank, R; 1956; Indianapolis; At: https://aperture.org/blog/separate-cars-open-road-robert-frank/ (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Figure 8. Bravo, MA; 1934; Striking Worker Murdered; At: https://www.manuelalvarezbravo.org/english/thirties-A.php#nogo (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Figure 9. Bravo, MA; 1920’s; Figures in the Castle; At https://www.manuelalvarezbravo.org/english/twenties.php (accessed on 11/10/2017)

References

Cartier-Bresson, H: 1954; Soviet Union: Henri Cartier-Bresson; Online at: https://pro.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL53ZMYN#/CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL53ZMYN&POPUPIID=2S5RYDFPJD0&POPUPPN=33 (accessed on 09/10/2017)

Hacking, J; 2012; Photography The Whole Story; London; Thames and Hudson

Kim, E; 2013; Robert Frank’s “The Americans”: Timeless Lessons Street Photographers Can Learn; Eric Kim Photography; Online at: http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2013/01/07/timeless-lessons-street-photographers-can-learn-from-robert-franks-the-americans/ (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Wikimendia Foundation Inc; 2017a; Robert Frank; Online at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Frank (accesses on 11/10/2017)

Wikimedia Foundation Inc; 2017b, Manuel Álvarez Bravo; Online at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_%C3%81lvarez_Bravo (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Also Viewed

Andreas Gursky; Online at: http://www.andreasgursky.com/en

Gagosian; Online at: https://www.gagosian.com/artists/andreas-gursky (accessed on 11/10/2017)

Magnum Photos; Online at: https://pro.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL53ZMYN#/CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL53ZMYN&POPUPIID=2S5RYD1TROZJ&POPUPPN=20 (accessed on 09/10/2017)

Wikimedia Foundation Inc; 2017; Henri Cartier-Bresson; Online at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Cartier-Bresson (accessed on 09/10/2017)

Scharf, A; 1998 (re-edited up to 2017); Henri Cartier-Bresson: French Photographer; Online at: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henri-Cartier-Bresson (accessed on 09/10/2017)

Tate; Online at: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/andreas-gursky-2349 (accessed on 11/10/2017)